When Kronprinz Ludwig, later King Ludwig I, married Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen on October 12, 1810, the citizens of Munich were invited to attend the festivities held on the fields in front of the city gates to celebrate the royal event. Horse races, in the tradition of the 15th-century Scharlachrennen (Scarlet Race at Karlstor), were held on October 12 to honor the newlyweds. It is widely understood that Andreas Michael Dall'Armi, a Major in the National Guard, proposed the idea. However, the origins of the horse races, and Oktoberfest itself, may have stemmed from proposals offered by Franz Baumgartner, a coachman and Sergeant in the National Guard. The precise origins of the festival and horse races remain a matter of controversy. But the decision to repeat the horse races, spectacle, and celebrations in 1811 launched what is now the annual Oktoberfest tradition.